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2018年6月英语四级第一套卷真题及答案,2018年6月

  澳大利亚国防部寻求更多权力,以监管澳大学与中国企业的研究合作计划,此事引起澳大学强烈不满。《澳大利亚人报》20日报道称,继去年有声音呼吁对澳大学、中国科技公司和中国国有企业之间的研究合作项目进行更严格的审查之后,多所大学将就国防部的要求与其举行紧急会议。

  Passage One

  Section C

图片 1图片源于网络

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  Direction: There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them there are four choice and our marked A),B),C) and D)。You should decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet2 with a single line through the centre。

  据此前报道,澳大利亚国防部提出关于“国防贸易管制法”的审查,提议提高该法案下科研和创新项目的门槛,并扩大国防部的进入、搜查和扣押权,以监督大学的技术项目。去年,澳安全研究人员质疑存在大学使用纳税人资金来资助涉及中国国有企业或中国公司的研究项目。他们认为,通过分享“双方可用”技术的发展,大学有可能协助中国发展军事能力。

  Living in an urban area with green spaces has a long-lasting positive impact on people’s mental well-being, a study has suggested, UK researchers found moving to a green space had a sustained positive effect, unlike pay rises or promotions, which only provided a short –term boost。 Co-author Mathew White, from the University of Exeter, UK, explained that the study showed people living in greener urban areas were displaying fewer signs of depression or anxiety。 “There could be a number of reasons。” he said, “for example, people do many things to make themselves happier; they strive for promotion or pay rises, or they get married。 But the trouble with those things is that within six months to a year, people are back to their original baseline levels of well-being。 So, these things are not sustainable; they don’t make us happy in the long term。 We found that for some lottery (彩票) winners who had won more than £500,000 the positive effect was definitely there, but after six months to a year, they were back to the baseline。”

  Passage One

  《澳大利亚人报》称,大学方面对该提案感到愤怒。澳大利亚大学八校联盟将于下周与国防部会面,并表示这项新的提案将破坏大学基本的合作和学术自由。八校联盟批评国防部的这一建议将对外国出生的澳研究人员、在澳大学就读博士的留学生、访问学者或其他大学本来可以与之合法合作的海外研究者的工作产生不利影响。

  Dr。 White said his team wanted to see whether living in greener urban areas has a lasting positive effect on people’s sense of well-being or whether the effect also disappeared after a period of time。 To do this, the team used data from the British Household Panel Survey compiled by University of Essex。

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  澳大利亚工党则批评国防部的行为是“越权”。负责科学与研究事务的工党发言人金·卡尔对《澳大利亚人报》说,目前的体系一直运作良好,国防部以前没有说过存在问题。而且,国防部在给参议院的评估中承认,没有发现大学或研究机构有任何不遵守“国防贸易管制法”的事件。他批评说:“国防部走得太远了。”

  Explaining what the data revealed, he said: “what you see is that even after three years, mental health is still better, which is unlike many other things that we think will make us happy。” He observed that people living in green spaces were less stressed, and less mm sensible decisions and communicated better。

  Losing your ability to think and remember is pretty scary。 We know the risk of dementia (痴呆) increases with age。 But if you have memory slips, you probably needn’t worry。 There are pretty clear differences between signs of dementia and age-related memory loss。

实习编辑:王雨欣 责任编辑:赵润琰

  With a growing body of evidence establishing a link between urban green spaces and a positive impact on human well-being。 Dr。 White said, “There’s growing interest among public policy officials, but the trouble is who funds it。 What we really need at a policy level is to decide where the money will come from to help support good quality local green spaces。”

  After age 50, it’s quite common to have trouble remembering the names of people, places and thing quickly, says Dr。 Kirk Daffner of Brigham and Woman’s Hospital in Boston。

  46。 According to one study, what do green spaces do to people?

  The brain ages just like the rest of the body。 Certain parts shrink, especially areas in the brain that are important to learning, memory and planning。 Changes in brain cells can affect communication between different regions of the brain。 And blood flow can be reduced as blood vessels narrow。

  A) Improve their work efficiency。

  Forgetting the name of an actor in a favorite movie, for example, is nothing to worry about。 But if you forget the plot of the movie or don’t remember even seeing it, that’s far more concerning, Daffner says。

  B) Add to their sustained happiness。

  When you forget entire experiences, he says, that’s “a red flag that something more serious may be involved。” Forgetting how to operate a familiar object like a microwave oven, or forgetting how to drive to the house of a friend you’ve visited many times before can also be signs of something going wrong。

  C) Help them build a positive attitude towards life。

  But even then, Daffner says, people shouldn’t panic.There are many things that can cause confusion and memory loss, including health problems like temporary stoppage of breathing, high blood pressure, or depression, as well as medications like antidepressants。 Even over-the-counter remedies like antihistamines can contribute to memory loss。

  D) Lesson their concerns about material well-being。

  And the best defense against memory loss is to try to prevent it by building up your brain’s cognitive (认知的) reserve, Daffner says。

  47。 What does Dr。 White say people usually do to make themselves happier?

  “Read books, go to movies, take on new hobbies or activities that force one to think in novel ways,” he says。 In other words, keep your brain busy and working。 And also get physically active, because exercise is a known brain booster。

  A) Earn more money。

  46。 Why does the author say that one needn’t be concerned about memory slips?

  B) Settle in an urban area。

  A) Not all of them are symptoms of dementia。

  C) Gain fame and popularity。

  B) They occur only among certain groups of people。

  D) Live in a green environment。

  C) Not all of them are related to one’s age。

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